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  • 国粹云

    普及生旦净丑等京剧英文词汇

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-02-27 20:10 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    普及生旦净丑等京剧英文词汇

    京剧(Peking Opera)是中国五大戏曲剧种之一,另外四种分别为越剧(Yue Opera)、黄梅戏(Huangmei Opera)、评剧(Ping Opera)和豫剧(Henan Opera)。

    京剧的前身的徽剧(Anhui Opera)。清代乾隆五十五年(1790年)起,原在南方演出的三庆、四喜、春台、和春, 四大徽班陆续进入北京,他们与来自湖北的汉调艺人合作,同时又接受了昆曲、秦腔的部分剧目、曲调和表演方法,吸收了一些地方民间曲调,通过不断的交流、融合,最终形成京剧。

    2010年11月16日,京剧被列入“人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录”(list of intangible world heritages)

    【京剧行当】

    Types of Roles

    京剧舞台上的一切都不是按照生活里的原貌出现的。京剧舞台上的角色也不是按照生活当中人的本来面貌出现的,而是根据所扮演角色的性别、性格、年龄、职业以及社会地位等,在化妆、服装各方面加以若干艺术的夸张,这样就把舞台上的角色划分成为生、旦、净、丑四种类型。这四种类型在京剧里的专门名词叫做“行当”。

    生(sheng, male role)

    除了花脸以及丑角以外的男性正面角色(male protagonist)的统称,分老生(elderly)、武生(military)、小生(young) 、红生(red-faced) 、娃娃生(young boy)。

    旦(dan, female role)

    女性正面角色( female protagonist)的统称,分青衣(main female role)、花旦(vivacious and unmarried women)、闺门旦(unmarried young girl)、刀马旦(young female warrior)、武旦(martial women)、彩旦(elderly women clown)。

    净(jing, painted face)

    俗称花脸,大多是扮演性格、品质或相貌上有些特异的男性人物,化妆用脸谱,音色洪亮,风格粗犷。“净”又分为正净(zhengjing,唱工花脸,又叫铜锤或黑头)和副净(fujing, 以动作造型表演为主),副净又包括架子花(jiazihualian, 以工架、念白、表演为主)和二花脸(erhualian, 武打动作多,唱词较少)。

    丑(chou, clown)

    扮演喜剧角色,因在鼻梁上抹一小块白粉,俗称小花脸。分文丑(wenchou, civilian)、武丑(wuchou, martial)等。

    【唱腔分类】

    Vocal Music

    西皮(xipi)

    唱腔明快高亢,刚劲挺拔,适于表达欢乐、激越、奔放的感情。明清之际,秦腔由西东传,结合湖北民间曲调演变而成西皮。 湖北 方言称唱为“皮”,西皮即由西传东的唱腔。

    二黄(erhuang)

    京剧二黄包括包括导板(倒板)、慢板(慢三眼)、原板、垛板、散板、摇板、回龙等板式。同西皮相比,二黄一般较为沉着稳重、凝练严肃。

    【京剧脸谱】

    Facial Makeup

    红脸(red face)含有褒义,代表忠勇

    黑脸(black face)为中性,代表猛智

    蓝脸(blue face)和绿脸(green face)也为中性,代表草莽英雄

    黄脸(yellow face)和白脸(white face)含贬义,代表凶诈凶恶

    金脸(golden face)和银脸(silver face)是神秘,代表神妖

    【伴奏乐器】

    Musical Instruments and Orchestras

    京剧伴奏乐器分打击乐器(percussion instruments)与管弦乐器(wind instruments and stringed instruments)。

    打击乐器(percussion instruments)有板(bamboo clappers)、鼓(drum)、大锣(gong)、钹(cymbals)等,称为“武场”(wuchang, acrobatic fighting)。

    管乐器(wind instruments)有笛(bamboo flute)、笙(reed pipe)、唢呐(suona horn)等,弦乐器(stringed instruments)有京胡(Peking opera fiddle)、京二胡(two-stringed fiddle)、月琴(four-stringed moon-shaped Chinese mandolin)、三弦(three-stringed plucked instrument),统称为“文场”(wenchang, civilian stage)。

    【京剧流派】

    Schools of Peking Opera

    京剧的流派习惯上以创始人的姓来命名,而各个行当又有各自领域的代表人物。

    梅派(Mei School)

    梅派由梅兰芳先生创立,是京剧旦行中首先形成的一个派别,主要是综合了青衣、花旦和刀马旦的表演方式,在唱、念、做、舞、音乐、服装、扮相等各个方面,进行不断的创新和发展,将京剧旦行的唱腔、表演艺术提高到了一个全新的水平,达到了完美的境界。

    程派(Cheng School)

    程派由京剧四大名旦之一程砚秋创立。主要以深邃曲折的唱腔,,通过娴静凝重的舞台形象表现古代的女性,尤其善于塑造遭遇悲惨、具有外柔内刚性格的中下层的女性。

    荀派(Xun School)

    由荀慧生创立。善于塑造天真、活泼、热情的少女形象,具有柔媚娇婉的风格。

    尚派(Shang School)

    由尚小云创立。以刚健婀娜为特有风格,唱、念、做、打均不尚纤巧,以气与力取胜,具有阳刚之美。

    谭派(Tan School)

    京剧老生行当中的主流派别,也是中国最早创立的京剧流派,由著名老生谭鑫培创立。谭派唱腔以委婉古朴而著称。

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