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  • 国粹云

    花鼓戏百科知识,历史、简介、特色和传统剧目

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-03-10 10:47 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    花鼓戏百科知识,历史、简介、特色和传统剧目

    剧种简介

    花鼓戏,是全国地方戏曲中同名最多的剧种。其中虽属

    花鼓戏百科知识,历史、简介、特色和传统剧目

    叶红、李左《刘海砍樵》

    “湖南花鼓戏”最为著名。但湖南花鼓戏却是一个笼统的剧种概念,因为湖南花鼓戏根据流行地区的不同可细分为:长沙花鼓戏(益阳花鼓戏)、岳阳花鼓戏(临湘花鼓戏)、衡州花鼓戏(衡阳花鼓戏)、邵阳花鼓戏、常德花鼓戏、永州花鼓戏(零陵花鼓戏)等六个流派。因此,严格来讲“湖南花鼓戏”并不是一个单一的地方剧种。通常所见到的湖南花鼓戏经典代表剧目如《刘海砍樵》、《打铜锣、补锅》等实为代表湖南花鼓戏的长沙花鼓戏中的剧目。但多数人并不能详细清楚地了解这些概念,所以人们一般所说的湖南花鼓戏其实就是长沙花鼓戏。

    长沙花鼓戏形成初期是以旧长沙府(今长沙县)为中心,后逐渐向周边县市辐射,其不只流行于长沙,在省内流传甚广,相对而言其它五个流派无论是流传范围还是知名程度来都远不及长沙花鼓戏。因此,长沙花鼓戏顺理成章地成为了湖南花鼓戏的代表。除岳阳花鼓戏之外,其它四个流派几乎都只在其所处县市或地区作代表性或象征性传承。除湖南花鼓戏之外,在湖北有荆州花鼓戏(湖北花鼓戏)、黄孝花鼓戏、东路花鼓戏,安徽的凤阳花鼓戏,皖南花鼓戏,河南的豫南花鼓戏(光山花鼓戏),浙江的桐乡花鼓戏、包山花鼓戏、平湖花鼓戏等同名的地方剧种。 

    历史溯源

    湖南花鼓戏源出于民歌,逐渐发展成为一旦一丑演唱的花鼓戏初级形式。1818年(清嘉庆廿三年)刊行的《浏阳县志》谈及当地元宵节玩龙灯情况时说:“又以童子装丑旦剧唱,金鼓喧阗,自初旬起至是夜止”。说明一旦一丑演唱的花鼓戏——地花鼓,最迟在清嘉庆年间已经形成。又据杨恩寿《坦园日记》1862年(清同治元年),杨恩寿在湖南永兴观看的“花鼓词”(即花鼓戏)中,已有书生、书童、柳莺、柳莺婢四个角色,而且情节与表演都较生动,说明这时的花鼓戏不但已发展成“三小”(小旦、小丑、小生)戏,而且演出形式也具有一定规模。从声腔和剧目看,初期以民间小调和牌子曲演唱边歌边舞的生活小戏,如《打鸟》、《盘花》、《送表妹》、《看相》等。后来,“打锣腔”与“川调”传入,才逐渐出现故事性强的民间传说题材剧目。打锣腔主要剧目有《清风亭》、《芦林会》、《八百里洞庭》、《雪梅教子》等,川调主要剧目有《刘海戏蟾》、《鞭打芦花》、《张光达上寿》、《赶子上路》等。这样,便形成了艺术上比较完整的地方剧种。

    花鼓戏百科知识,历史、简介、特色和传统剧目

    《刘海砍樵经》典剧照

    早期花鼓戏只有半职业性班社在农村作季节性演出,农忙务农,农闲从艺。光绪以来,这种班社发展较快,仅宁乡、衡阳两县就有几十副“行箱”,艺人近200人。训练演员采取随班跟师方式,也有收徒传艺的,称“教场”或“教馆”,每场数十天,教三、四出戏。过去,由于花鼓戏经常遭受歧视和禁演,各地花鼓戏班都曾兼演当地流行的大戏剧目以作掩护,这种戏班称“半台班”或“半戏半调”、“阴阳班子”。中华人民共和国成立后,各地分别成立专业剧团,进入城市剧场公演。刘海砍樵为其经典曲目,脍炙人口,一直为人们传唱。

    据1981年统计,全省有花鼓戏剧团54个,并成立了湖南省花鼓戏剧院。1957年,湖南省戏曲学校成立,设有花鼓戏专科。 传统剧目 各地花鼓戏传统剧目,总计约400多个,以反映民间生活为主,多以生产劳动、男女爱情或家庭矛盾为题材,语言生动,乡土气息浓厚。《打铜锣》、《补锅》、《送货路上》、《野鸭洲》等已摄制成影片。

    湖南花鼓戏 [2]  ,由于流行地区不同而有长沙花鼓戏、岳阳花鼓戏、衡阳花鼓戏、邵阳花鼓戏、常德花鼓戏、零陵花鼓戏等六个流派之分,其都各具不同的艺术风格。它源自湘南民歌发展而成,从一旦一丑演唱发展到“三小”演唱。各地花鼓戏的传统剧目约有四百多个,音乐曲调三百余支。按其结构和音乐风格的不同可分为川调、打锣腔、牌子、小调四类,都有粗犷爽朗、地方色彩浓郁的特点。音乐主要是以极具地方特色的湖南花鼓大筒、以及唢呐、琵琶、笛子、锣鼓等民族乐器作伴奏。曲调活泼轻快,旋律流畅明快。

    中华人民共和国成立后,花鼓戏艺术有较大发展,不但整理了如《刘海砍樵》、《打鸟》等传统戏,而且创作了《双送粮》、《姑嫂忙》、《三里湾》等不少现代戏。如《打铜锣》、《补锅》、《送货路上》、《野鸭洲》等已摄制成影片。特别是唱遍大江南北,风靡海内外的湖南花鼓戏名剧《刘海砍樵》其脍炙人口的“比古调”唱段,深受全国各地的人民群众所喜爱。 [3] 

    声腔特色

    湖南花鼓戏的牌子,有走场牌子和锣鼓牌子,

    花鼓戏百科知识,历史、简介、特色和传统剧目

    刘海砍樵

    源于湘南民歌,以小唢呐、锣鼓伴奏,活泼、轻快,适用于歌舞戏,是湘南诸流派主要唱腔之一。 小调。有民歌小调和丝弦小调之分,后者虽属明、清时调小曲系统,但已地方化。各种形式的曲调,都具有粗犷、爽朗的特点。 表演特点花鼓戏的表演艺术朴实、明快、活泼,行当仍以小丑、小旦、小生的表演最具特色。小丑夸张风趣,小旦开朗泼辣,小生风流洒脱。步法和身段比较丰富,长于扇子和手巾的运用,拥有表现农村生活的各种程式,诸如划船、挑担、捣碓、砍柴、打铁、打铳、磨豆腐、摸泥鳅、放风筝、捉蝴蝶等等。后期由于剧目的发展,表演艺术也有所丰富,如吸收了兄弟剧种的一些毯子功和把子功,充实了武功表演。

    行当 花鼓戏的行当分工也更趋细致,不但由“三小”发展到生、旦、净、丑,而且“三小”中也有更细的分工。以长沙花鼓戏为例,小丑又分褶子丑、短身丑、官衣丑、烂布丑、奶生丑;小旦又分正旦、二旦、花旦、闺门旦;小生又分正小生、风流小生、武小生、烂布小生、奶生子等。在长期的艺术实践中,各地的花鼓戏都各有一些著名演员,有长沙的何冬保(丑)、湘潭的廖春山(旦)、邵阳的王佑生(老旦)、桃源的张树生(生)、岳阳的杨伯成(丑)、衡阳的张廷玉(小生)等。 [3] 

    传承意义

    湖南花鼓戏蕴含了各个地方独特的艺术表现形式,吸收了各种民间艺术的精华,是地方传统文化的一块瑰宝。 文化是民族的血脉,是人民的精神家园。对花鼓戏的传承与发展,有助于更好地弘扬地方传统文化,激发百姓的爱国热情,凝聚建设和谐社会的精神动力。 

    传统剧目

    湖南各地的花鼓戏剧目就有400余出,湖北有“大本三十六,小出七十二”的说法,大多是反映人民劳动、男女爱情和家庭矛盾的,例如《打鸟》、《盘花》、《雪梅教子》、《鞭打芦花》、《绣荷包》、《赶子上路》、《刘海砍樵》、《补锅》、《告经承》、《荞麦记》、《天仙配》、《酒醉花魁》等。

    还有一些以喻老四、张德和为主角的戏,都以浓厚的乡土气息反映着当地的风土人情。因此花鼓戏与当地人民的生活关系非常密切,再加上语言不同,师承起源不同,流派不同,每个地区的花鼓戏都有各自的风格特色,所以花鼓戏的种类也就五花八门了。

    音乐曲调 花鼓戏的音乐曲调约300余支,基本上是曲牌联缀结构体,辅以板式变化,根据曲调结构、音乐风格和表现手法的不同,可分为4类:川调。或称正宫调,即弦子调,大筒、唢呐伴奏,曲调由过门乐句与唱腔乐句组成,调式、旋律变化丰富,是花鼓戏的主要唱腔。 打锣腔,又称锣腔,曲牌联缀结构,“腔”、“流”(数板)结合,不托管弦,一人启口众人帮和,有如高腔,是长沙、岳阳、常德花鼓戏主要唱腔之一。

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