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  • 国粹云

    为啥京剧名家都喜欢演唱《四郎探母》?

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-02-21 22:39 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    为啥京剧名家都喜欢演唱《四郎探母》?

    在1月份创意盒子touchbox的一日一话中,我们介绍了31部国内外经典的歌剧、音乐剧,走进戏剧的殿堂,享受声乐之美。2月,伴随着春节、元宵等各种传统佳节的来临,我们将介绍中国各地的传统戏曲。

    《四郎探母》又名《北天门》,取材于杨家将故事,但情节却与《杨家将演义》有所不同。小说中的杨四郎战败被擒后降辽招亲,是为了伺机报仇。后来果然策应宋军破辽。该剧的作者却在原小说的基础上进行了加工改造,有意淡化战争气氛,重点渲染人物之间的人伦亲情。因而长期以来对此剧褒贬不一。贬之者认为:这出戏同情和美化了“叛国投敌”的杨四郎,宣扬了“叛徒哲学”,有辱杨家将“一门忠烈”的形象,应当否定,甚至禁演;而褒之者认为:杨四郎的“叛徒”罪名,事出有因、查无实据,属于“冤假错案”,应予平反。

    尽管对该剧的思想倾向有不同的评价,但褒贬双方对《四郎探母》的艺术成就都一致公认。该剧结构严谨,情节顺畅,环环相扣,一气呵成。对人物感情的描写,很有深度,在“人情”二字上做足了文章。在两军对阵、剑拔弩张的背景下,身陷异邦的杨四郎夤夜冒着杀身之祸偷跑出关探望母亲。漫长的十五年骨肉离别,短暂的一夜团聚,杨四郎在声声更鼓的催促下,依次与家中亲人相见,说不尽的离愁别恨、思念之情,却又才相聚,又分离。

    为啥京剧名家都喜欢演唱《四郎探母》?

    作者淋漓尽致地抒发了母子、夫妻、兄弟之间的种种人伦之情,苍凉凄楚,哀婉动人。该剧人物不少,行当配置相当整齐,唱念安排得当,唱腔也丰富而优美。尤其《坐宫》一场,几乎囊括了西皮唱腔的全部板式,通过板式的变化、多层次地揭示了人物的情绪变化,是一出极著名的生、旦唱工戏。

    这一场的开始,四郎思母心切,但老母既近在咫尺,又好似远在天涯;铁镜公主想为丈夫排遣忧闷,便与他闲聊,并猜测心事。在这一段戏里,唱腔用的是舒缓柔和的慢板。接下来,四郎对公主讲明了自己的真实来历和想见老母一面的心情,公主大为意外。这时唱腔随之加快,转上摇板、原板和快板。公主表示愿意帮助四郎,但“怕你一去不回还”;四郎则急切地保证信守诺言,以至跪下盟誓。这时唱腔进一步催快,特别是两人的大段对唱层层递进、一气呵成、淋漓尽致地表达出二人的激动心情。

    总观全剧,对四郎、公主和其它重要人物的情感刻画都很鲜明、生动。正因如此,民族之间的残酷争战对人的正常亲情所造成的巨大损害,就更让人思索不已。作为一部情感刻画很深、唱腔艺术成就也很高的作品,很多京剧演员都喜欢演唱《四郎探母》。它还常常成为名家联袂演出的大合作戏。

    为啥京剧名家都喜欢演唱《四郎探母》?

    台湾作家龙应台曾在文章《如果你为四郎哭泣》中这样说到:“从《四郎探母》,我如醍醐灌顶似地发觉,是的,我懂了为什么《俄底浦斯》能在星空下演两千年仍让人震撼,为什么《李尔王》在四百年后仍让人感动。

    文化,或者说,艺术,做了什么呢?它使孤独的个人为自己说不出的痛苦找到了名字和定义。少小离家老大失乡的老兵们,从四郎的命运里认出了自己不可言喻的处境,认出了处境中的残酷和荒谬,而且,四郎的语言——“千拜万拜,赎不过儿的罪来”——为他拔出了深深扎进肉里的自责和痛苦。艺术像一块蘸了药水的纱布,轻轻擦拭他灵魂深处从未愈合的伤口。

    文化艺术使孤立的个人,打开深锁自己的门,走出去,找到同类。他发现,他的经验不是孤立的,而是共同的集体的经验,他的痛苦和喜悦,是一种可以与人分享的痛苦和喜悦。孤立的个人因而产生归属感。”

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