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  • 国粹云

    戏曲表演的四种基本功

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-06-26 16:15 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    戏曲表演的四种基本功

    戏曲表演的四种艺术手段,也是戏曲表演的四项基本功。唱指歌唱,念指具有音乐性的念白,二者互为补充,构成歌舞化的戏曲表演艺术两大要素之一的“歌”。做指舞蹈化的形体动作,打指武术和翻跌的技艺,二者相互结合,构成歌舞化的戏曲表演艺术两大要素之一的“舞”。

    戏曲在长期发展的过程中,逐渐融合唱念做打各种艺术手段,为搬演故事、塑造人物服务。早在汉代百戏中就有《东海黄公》的节目,通过武术和杂技,表演简单的故事。唐代盛行歌舞,以载歌载舞著称。宋杂剧演出分“艳段”、“正杂剧”、“杂扮”三部分,把歌舞、戏剧、杂耍集于一台,起了相互影响和融合的作用。元杂剧在表演上已有简单的武打。明代弋阳、昆山诸腔勃兴以后,在声乐和舞蹈技艺的结合方面渐趋完善。清乾隆、嘉庆年间,徽调与汉调合流,继承昆、弋的传统,吸收各种地方戏的优点,逐步向京剧演变,大致到了同治、光绪前后,一个以唱念做打多样统一的完整艺术形式才臻成熟。 

    戏曲剧种为数众多,表演上运用的艺术手段各有侧重。大抵搬演生活小戏的花鼓、采茶等系统的剧种,载歌载舞;由坐唱形式搬上舞台的滩簧、曲子等系统的剧种,侧重说唱;昆曲、高腔、皮簧、梆子系统的剧种,唱念做打四功并重。中华人民共和国成立以来,各剧种相互促进,共同提高,上述差别已逐渐缩小。目前,各剧种大都具备了唱念做打的艺术手段。

    戏曲演员按照传统的规程,从小就从唱念做打几个方面接受严格的基础训练,充分掌握了基本的技法和程式,熟悉了各种音乐语汇和舞蹈语汇,而后才能进行艺术创造。戏曲谚语说,“师傅领进门,修行在个人”,“领进门”是指口传身授的传艺,“靠个人”则指个人的揣摩、发挥与创造。戏曲演员幼时一面苦练基本功,一面拍曲学戏,学会几出或十几出传统折子戏后,就开始登台演出,在艺术实践中逐渐学会体验角色,熟悉并发挥唱念做打的艺术功能。缺少基本功,就失去创作的手段;仅擅基本功的技法和程式,也是难于创造鲜明的艺术形象的。

    基本功之一:唱 

    学习唱功的第一步是喊嗓、吊嗓,扩大音域、音量,锻炼歌喉的耐力和音色,还要分别字音的四声阴阳、尖团清浊、五音四呼,练习咬字、归韵、喷口、润腔等技巧。当演员掌握了这一切时,更重要的则是善于运用声乐技巧来表现人物的性格、感情与精神状态。几百年来,戏曲美学中一直有传声与传情的分歧,有的演员侧重音色和唱腔旋律的美,讲究唱出韵味;有的演员则着重中气充沛、字正腔圆,主张首先要唱出感情。卓越的演员大都把传声与传情结合起来,通过声乐的艺术感染力,表现剧中人的心曲。 

    戏曲的唱,从来不是穿插在戏里的独立的声乐表演,而是塑造人物的重要手段之一。一些优秀剧目,安排唱段是根据剧情的需要,人物性格、思想、情绪发展的需要。通过优美的音乐形象来丰富和加强文学形象,诉诸观众的听觉感官,正象做和打通过优美的舞蹈形象诉诸观众的视觉感官一样。因而戏曲的唱,演员的技巧和修养都是决定艺术创造得失、高下的重要因素。对同一剧目的同一角色,由于演员的体验、理解不同,也由于唱腔唱法不同,逐渐形成了演唱上各种意趣不同的艺术风格。

    不同的剧种,对唱的运用也有所不同。有的唱得多,动辄三五十句,甚至超过百句。有的唱得较少,在剧中人动情的时刻才设置大段的唱腔。唱得多的剧种,往往以唱代念,或介乎唱与念之间,润腔较少。唱得少的剧种,大都在声乐艺术上刻意求工,对行腔度曲,进行高度的提炼。 

    从戏曲发展的过程来看,唱腔的伴奏是由简到繁的。古老剧种弋阳腔,采用一唱众和的帮腔形式,仅用简单的打击乐伴奏。明嘉靖年间正式形成的昆山腔,发展为兼用笙、箫、笛、琵琶等管弦乐器伴奏,音乐效果大为增强。近代戏曲更加重视伴奏的衬托作用,逐渐增多了乐器的种类,并密切了声乐和器乐的配合。也有些剧种在主要唱段中停止器乐伴奏,由演员独唱“清板”,以突出声乐的表现力。帮腔形式,目前在一些高腔系统的剧种中仍旧保留着,作为烘托气氛、揭示人物内心世界的手段。 

    由于唱词都是诗词体,句法紧凑精练,文学性较强,因此更便于集中地抒发情感。此外,在叙事、写景、争辩、斥责等场合,一般也常发挥唱的功能,以增强艺术效果,并给人以美感享受。为了便于传达感情、唤起共鸣,曲词的文学性不尚典雅,而在于雅俗共赏、简洁明快、涉笔成趣。

    在戏曲里,唱作为主要艺术手段之一,它不是单独运用的,而是和念、做、打等艺术手段有机结合,融为一体,为塑造人物服务。


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