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  • 国粹云

    京剧知识:谈京剧唱念中四声的运用

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-06-26 16:17 出处:网络 作者:张东东 编辑:@国粹云
    京剧知识:谈京剧唱念中四声的运用

    怎样才能使京剧表演中的唱、念,做到唱得入耳,念得好听,使唱和念有独特的“味儿”,一直是学习京剧艺术的人们所不懈追求的。人的嗓音条件是不可能完全相同的。有的人嗓音天赋好,若是唱、念不得法,功夫下得不深,也不能唱、念出韵味醇厚、高妙的曲调来;有的人天赋差,嗓音有一定的缺欠,若能在唱、念中运用正确的方法,用心钻研,同样能唱、念出巧夺天工的动听之声。前辈艺术家余叔岩的天赋就不如谭鑫培,杨宝森的天赋就差于余叔岩,裘盛戎就不如金少山的天赋好,但他们却都各自创出风格,形成了流派,成为京剧表演艺术的珍宝。由此可见,唱、念之法是极为重要的,得之与失之有天壤之别。 

        京剧中的唱念是很有讲究的,下面我就四声这一个方面谈谈自己的心得。 

        京剧中的唱念讲究“韵味”。京剧演员的唱念艺术是由唱词、引子、诗对、念白等组成的。这些艺术语言要唱、念得字正腔圆才能使广大观众听得懂,并感人入耳,好听。怎样才能做到这点呢? 方法就是要掌握四声的不同。 

        京剧的四声是阴平、阳平、上声、去声。古汉语中的四声一般是指平、上、去、入四声,古时对四声的理解有不少的口诀,如:“平声哀而安,上声厉而举,去声清而远,入声直而促。”又如:“平声长言,上声短言,去声重言,人声急言。”还有许多口诀在此就不一一例举了。

        现在把运用四声的方法、规则表述如下,当然,需要说明的是,任何规则在实际使用中都要求活用。 

        我们可以把“开门扫地”这四个字组成的一句话为例,说明阴、阳、上、去四声的用法。 

        刻板规定四声的唱法是: 

        “开”是阴平,阴平的唱念要用阴平音,“开”就念开音,但阴平声亦可改念阴平字的去音(但要平念,不同于去声,去声字尾音向上去) 。这是阴平字需要改变阴平字本音的时候的灵活用法。

        “门”是阳平,阳平不念本音,要改念阳平字的上声或去声,就是“门”不能念门音,要念成 门字的上声音和门的去声音“闷”音皆可。但京剧有使用京韵白说法,这种念法是“阳平可变”, 用念成阳平字的阴平音,亦可使用念成阴平字的阳平音。 

        “扫”是上声,上声念本音,但念上音的本音时要念成向上滑的音,上声亦可改念为阳平音,还可改念上声的去声音,但音要向上滑。扫字还可改念成扫字的阳平音或去声音。这是在两个上声音相遇成上下句,前后句时需要活用。 

        “地”是去声,去声念本音,但字尾收韵时要上去,去声亦可改念上声音(但不使用上的滑音)。就是说“地”可改念成“底”音,这是在两个去声相遇时或上下句、前后字时需要活用。 

        阴、阳、上、去四声在京剧唱念中的使用法,可按以下口诀: 

        阴念阴去莫低昂,阳平改念去与上; 

        若遇特殊用阳处,可念阴还可念阳; 

        逢上必滑猛力强,上声亦可念去阳; 

        去声变化上入阳,去声亦可改念上; 

        入声低短急收止,入声纳入阴去上。 

        例如《失街亭》的大引子“羽扇纶巾,四轮车,快似风云,阴阳反掌定乾坤,保汉家,两代贤臣”:“羽”上声,念本音向上滑的音。“扇”去声,念本音尾韵,向上句。“纶”阴平,念本音。“巾”阴平(因纶巾两字是两个阴平字,相遇念一阳一去)。“四”去声,念本音尾韵向上句。

    “轮”阳平,念去声。“车”阴平,念本音。“快”去声,念上声。“似”去声,念本音尾韵向上句(因快似两字是两个去声字相遇,念一上一去,或一去一上亦可)。“风”阴平,念本音。“阳”阳平念上声。“反”上声,念去声。“掌”上声,念本音向上滑的音(因反掌两字是上声字,相遇念一去一上,或一阳一去亦可)。“定”去声,念本音尾韵向上句。“乾”阳平,念去声。“坤” 阴平念本音,“保”上声,念本音向上滑的音。“汉”去声,念本音尾韵向上句。“家”阴平念本音。“两”上声,念本音向上滑的音。“代”去声,念本音尾韵向上句。“贤”阳平,念上声。“臣”阳平,念去声,因贤臣两字是两阳平相遇,念一上一去。 

        以上是按刻板规定使用四声,可做到字正,但需灵活运用。又如《失街亭》的唱段“两国交锋龙虎斗,各为其主统貔貅”:“两”上声,念阳平。“国”(原多入声,因北方无声,归并到上声去)上声,念去声(两上声相遇念一阳一去)。“交”阴平,念本音。“锋”阴平,念去声(两阴平相遇念一阴一去)。“龙” 阳平, 念上声。“虎”上声,念去声。“斗”去声,念本音尾韵向上句。“各”去声,念上声。“为”去声,念本音尾韵向上。(各、为是两去声字,相遇念一上一去)。“其”阳平,念上声。“主”上声,念本音向上滑的音。“统”上声,念阳平。“貔”阳平,念上声。“貅”阴平,念本音。综上所述,唱念在四声运用上是一个道理,运用得法,字即可正。 

        所谓“字正腔圆”,腔是指唱腔。唱腔演绎的是艺术语言,在唱腔中,一个字的表述时间可以拉到很长,它突破了生活语言的格,能更好地抒发感情,并不影响对这句话本意的理解。因为唱腔能传情达意,是用音乐去感染人,而形成唱的艺术。要在唱腔中达到“字正腔圆”的标准,“字正”用四声去解决,“腔圆”亦需运用四声来解决。 

        唱腔中的每个字,在发音上都分为字首、字腹、字尾三部分,字首是出音部,字腹是落韵部, 字尾是收韵部。行腔要在字的腹部行,行完腔在尾音上收韵,它的公式是:唱——出音——落韵——收韵。运用这个规律就能达到唱的字正腔圆。如《空城计》的“先帝爷,下南阳,御驾三请”一句,在这句词的“阳”字和“请”字上都有较长的腔,都是要在字首出音,字腹行腔,字尾收韵。 以此类推,要注意不要在字腹行腔中几次用字尾收韵,这会影响唱腔的完整,应该引以为忌。 

        综上所述,四声是京剧唱和念中十分重要的一个环节,它与五音、四呼、丹田、共鸣、气口、抑扬顿挫、句读、尖团、上口字等环节形成一个整体,相辅相成,不可或缺。总之,只有深钻苦练,才能得心应手,运用自如,做到唱得好听、念得入耳,有声、有韵、有旋律、有气势、有其独特的“味儿”。 


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