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  • 国粹云

    “玩票”:北京老票房与名票友

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2018-07-21 12:50 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    本月初,由北京市西城区文化委员会、文学艺术界联合会主办的“西城区京剧票房大赛”成功举办。说到北京西城的“票房”,那可是有着说不完的故事……

    一般研习京剧史之学者,皆认为京剧肇始于清道光二十年(1840年)左右,而清同治十年(1871年)前后,伴随着京剧艺术的繁荣发展,像模像样的京剧票房和技艺不凡的京剧名票也诞生了,推算起来至今也有百五十年矣。本月初,由北京市西城区文化委员会、文学艺术界联合会主办的“西城区京剧票房大赛”成功举办。说到北京西城的“票房”,那可是有着说不完的故事……

    “票房”“票友”与“玩票”

    均源自唱戏许可证“龙票”

    要介绍北京地区的票房历史,首先要明白什么叫“票房”。戏曲词典条目里解释得极简单,所谓“票房”是指戏曲或曲艺爱好者的业余组织。说到票房,下面就应说说票友。什么叫“票友”呢?剧学书是这样说的:非职业性的京剧演员和乐队工作人员,而票友转成职业演员,那就叫“下海”。

    做票友之前,先要成“戏迷”,它是伴随着京剧的形成而出现的。太喜欢京剧了,魔怔了,只要有好戏,不管家里管得多严,“爷”得去瞧瞧,去过瘾,去叫碰头好,这就是戏迷。戏迷不是一个人,是一大帮人,这些人听戏风雨无阻,宁肯不吃早点,也要攒俩钱儿掏腰包买票,看自己心仪的角儿。钱攒得不够怎么办呢?不买前排的票,即使买后排的票,也得进园子去看这个角儿。用今天的术语说,这些就是京戏的铁杆粉丝。

    票友的作用太重要了,正是有了这些铁杆戏迷的参与和支持,京剧才能很好地生存、延续和发展。这些戏迷一开始只想看好戏,等到以后劲头更大了,想学戏也想登台,唱两口儿,或是唱整出大戏了,这样的人达到目的后,就是票友啦。票友学习唱戏,排戏和演戏的场所,就是票房了。那么干吗叫票房呢?这里边可有很多的讲究。

    给梅兰芳写过许多剧本的戏剧家齐如山先生这样说,清朝入关之初,恐怕人民不服,设法选了一批人说大鼓书。大鼓书的内容,都是说清朝的好话,这帮人有薪水,派到各地去演出。每人发给一张龙票,各个地方衙门见了龙票,就要负责招待持票人的吃住。有的人不同意这种说法,比如戏剧评论家唐鲁孙则认为,齐如山先生说的这个票房,是内务府核准成立的,发给执照盖有正式大印,上面印有龙纹,因此大家叫它“龙票”。龙票是发给团体的,而不是发给个人的。一个说是发给个人,一个说是发给团体,究竟哪个对呢?

    实际上,龙票应该是发给团体的,票上有龙纹,故名龙票。清朝入关以后,一些八旗子弟很爱唱一种叫“清音子弟书”的曲艺玩意儿,类似单弦中的“岔曲儿”。他们到各地去唱岔曲、说吉祥话,手中持有龙票,上面写着发给“某某票房”的文字。没有这个龙票,是不准到各个地区传唱的。到了康熙中叶,清朝的江山已经很坚固了,治安稳定、经济发展,就不再需要有这个官方核准的龙票了。也就是说,谁愿意去唱都可以,这个主动去唱的人,就叫“票友”。他们虽叫票友,手里却没有龙票,当时这些票友到各地的演出唱曲都叫做“走票”,后来又叫“玩票”。这些票友都很清高,演出唱曲不卖票,也不能要任何报酬。当时还有几句掷地有声的话,叫做“义勇胜强,万寿无疆,茶水不扰,酒饭自扛”,意思是我们连茶水都不扰,甚至自个儿带着大铜壶去唱戏,表明了高尚的品格。

    晚清时北京西城的票房盛况

    一家就培育了80多位“名票”

    京城票房的高潮是从道光三十年(1850年)起直到清王朝结束,在这六七十年间,北京出现了几十个大小不等的著名票房。其中最大的、影响力最强的一个,就在北京西城西直门内的盘儿胡同的“赏心乐事”票房。这个票房是由翠峰庵改成的,成立于清同治十年(1871年),是由清朝宗室载雁宾创建的。这个人是清朝宗室贵胄,和光绪皇帝载湉是一辈儿的人,所以很有威望和势力。他这个人很风雅,精通国故,也从不以势压人,对京剧非常有研究,有很高的造诣,可以说,生旦净丑各行当,无一不知、无一不能。这个票房吸引了众多的热爱京剧的非专业的高手,也就是“名票”,影响力非常大。

    载雁宾去世以后,又有个唱刀马旦的满族名票安敬之成为票房的主持;继他之后,又由当时在此走票的红票友德珺如主持。这个人也是满清贵胄,他的曾祖父是道光朝的名相穆彰阿。此人酷爱京剧,初唱旦角,后唱小生,造诣非常之高超。后来他甘愿被开除旗籍,“下海”做起倡优“贱民”,成为有名的专业演员,晚年更成为谭门第三代名伶谭小培的岳父。

    “赏心乐事”票房存在时间很长,大概结束于光绪三十四年(1908年)。这个票房有几个特点:其一,定期演出,一般是逢每月的三、六、九日演出。有时是清唱,清音桌上的“戏圭”,写着戏码(剧目名)。票友唱戏叫“票戏”,或是“清唱”,即唱名段;或是“彩唱”,即唱整出的大戏。这个票房每开锣唱戏,也卖票,而且是常常爆满、一票难求。不但普通京剧爱好者来看戏,就是有些专业内行,也常常混在普通观众当中来看戏,实际是来偷艺;其二,存在的时间久,这里的票友都是有文化的人,三十多年来从这里走出来的名票约有80多位,他们不仅唱戏,而且研究戏、改戏,让这里成为了一个戏曲研究所。这80多名票中,有成绩有名气的大概有十多个人,名净如黄润甫、金秀山,小生如德珺如、金仲仁,老生则有汪笑侬、许荫棠、韦久峰、刘鸿昇,老旦首推龚云甫,还有后来成为郝派创始人的名净郝寿臣等等,这些人后都成为冠绝一时成宗立派的名伶。

    此外,北京西城还有许多的大票房,比如同声园、风流赏月、塔院护国寺、辛寺庙、公余同乐、悦情怡怀、张晓山票房等等,大大小小有几十个。其他各城区,虽然也有一些京剧票房,如朝阳门内的关帝庙票房等等,但和西城比较起来,那就少多了。

    20世纪初期北京的票房

    名流云集,遍及四九城

    20世纪初期,北京票房依然众多,遍及四九城,其中最有影响的当为“春阳友会”票房。此票房在原来的崇文区(即今天的东城区)东晓市大街129号,成立于1914年,由名票鼓师樊棣生主持。当时,名演员梅兰芳、姜妙香、王瑶卿、陈德霖、刘砚芳等知名艺术家均作为票房会员来参加活动,余叔岩、程砚秋等人还多次在这里演出,借台实践,还特请老伶工钱金福、鲍吉祥、王荣山、曹二庚等任教授艺、指导排练并参加助演。这个票房的特点,一是成员一直非常整齐,有许多技艺高超的名票,如言菊朋、郭仲衡、朱琴心、包丹庭、赵子仪、陈远亭、世哲生、章小山、卧云居士等,都在此票房活动,许多名演员如梅兰芳、尚小云,都曾和这些造诣超凡的名票在一起互相学习、切磋技艺;二是这里演出的剧目甚多,文武昆乱不挡,有些剧目反成为名票的特有剧目,有些唱段也颇有特色,在京剧圈内有口皆碑,不弱于专业剧团,演唱卖票也已超越了单纯自娱自乐的范围;三是从此票房走出来而“下海”者也很多,如朱琴心、郭仲衡、王又荃、卧云居士等,这些人“下海”以后都成为名演员,有的甚至是挂头牌的挑班演员。

    这时西城区的票房仍然非常多,有研乐集、达王府、果子观、南月牙等知名票房,其中最值得一提的是“言乐会”票房。“言乐会”票房成立于1918年,由红豆馆主溥侗与袁寒云(又名袁克文,袁世凯二公子)两个人合组而成。这个票房的票友有载涛、载洵、溥伦等满清贵胄,他们都受过名老艺术家传授,技艺高人一筹,不同凡响,而且精于诗词歌赋、粉墨丹青,所以言乐会票房,不仅名票多,而且文学性很强,常常对于传统戏进行研讨。

    来源:北京晚报

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