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  • 國粹云

    戲曲藝術助力構建“中國電影學派”

    國粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2018-07-21 14:04 出處:網絡 編輯:@國粹云
    戲曲藝術助力構建“中國電影學派”

    從電影誕生至今,戲曲以其豐富、獨特的藝術表征,成為增強電影民族性、承擔文化傳承的重要手段,為“中國電影學派”的建構作出了貢獻。

    戲曲與電影聯姻形式多樣

    中國電影的誕生,始自以電影的影像記錄功能拍攝的京劇《定軍山》的武戲場面。此后很長一段時間內,舞臺表演實錄是電影與戲曲聯合的主要途徑,隨后又產生了中國獨有的電影類型——戲曲電影,并在世界影壇大放異彩。此外,戲曲以元素的形式被自由選擇與吸納而進入電影、與電影融合,更巧妙靈活地凸顯了中國電影的辨識度。戲曲與電影聯姻的這3種形式,在中國電影發展的百余年時間里被不斷嘗試與創新。

    從《定軍山》肇始的戲曲舞臺表演實錄,以電影的影像記錄功能為戲曲與電影的聯姻奠定了基礎,使中國電影從誕生之日起就烙上了鮮明的“中國”印記?!抖ㄜ娚健芳半S即出現的《長坂坡》《艷陽樓》《青石山》等一系列無聲片時期的戲曲舞臺表演實錄,都主要是以部分武戲場面呈現戲曲藝術“唱念做打”中“打”的部分。隨著20世紀30年代聲音進入電影,《四郎探母》《周瑜歸天》《林沖夜奔》等舞臺表演實錄即突破以往默片的局限,全面呈現出戲曲載歌載舞的藝術風貌。20世紀40年代,中國電影開始有了色彩,戲曲藝術的行頭、道具、砌末等與民族文化息息相關的美學元素就更為生動地出現在電影里,其民族化美學特征充分彰顯。

    隨著電影藝術和技術的深入發展,戲曲與電影的聯姻逐漸突破舞臺表演實錄的局限,以“戲曲電影”的形式呈現出來,戲曲電影也逐漸成為中國獨有的電影類型。1948年,費穆與梅蘭芳合作的《生死恨》是早期戲曲電影的集大成者,費穆在表現戲曲藝術的同時積極探索電影語言的運用,較好地解決了電影寫實與戲曲寫意的美學差異,其一系列拍攝技巧與方法成為戲曲電影創作的圭臬,為此后戲曲電影的繁榮發展奠定了基礎。20世紀五六十年代,戲曲電影在數量和質量上取得了雙重成就,《梁山伯與祝英臺》《十五貫》《楊門女將》《女駙馬》《野豬林》《紅樓夢》等一系列戲曲電影橫空出世,使之成為在國際影壇嶄露頭角的成熟的電影類型,也成為建構“中國電影學派”的突出成果。

    在舞臺實錄和戲曲電影兩種形式之外,戲曲藝術對中國電影的滋養,還以“戲曲元素”的形式更廣泛地融入中國電影發展的不同階段與不同方面。成就斐然的第五代導演尤其注重以戲曲元素作為增加其電影“中國”辨識度的重要手段,《大紅燈籠高高掛》《活著》《霸王別姬》《千里走單騎》《梅蘭芳》等影片以鮮明的中國特色蜚聲國際影壇,戲曲元素的運用功不可沒。進入新世紀后,中國電影對戲曲的借鑒和運用更為靈活自由:有的電影中,戲曲運用的符號化意味較為明顯,如《瘋狂的石頭》中經常出現密集的鑼鼓點;有的電影中戲曲元素只是某個場面的陪襯而并無實際意義,如《廚子·戲子·痞子》里武生裝扮的戲子初次亮相就隨口唱了一折《空城計》;有的電影則巧妙借用戲曲元素為電影敘事服務,如《不成問題的問題》里的兩段戲曲表演,就是電影故事不可或缺的推力。

    戲曲助力國產電影精神品格

    從電影誕生至今,戲曲即以其豐富、獨特的藝術表征,成為增強電影民族性、承擔文化傳承的重要手段,為“中國電影學派”的建構作出了貢獻。中國戲曲對于“中國電影學派”建構的主要意義在于其中蘊含的中國精神、中國價值和中國力量,有助于確立中國電影的民族立場和精神品格。

    縱觀戲曲藝術與中國電影的聯姻歷史,我們可以清晰地發現其促進了中國電影振興的民族立場與中國電影的精神品格。20世紀30年代,王次龍導演的《四郎探母》《霸王別姬》《林沖夜奔》、周翼華導演的《斬經堂》等優秀戲曲片,以深厚的傳統價值觀激勵亂世中的國人奮進拼搏。其后,以費穆的《小城之春》為代表的一系列電影則高度融合戲曲元素,以飽含戲曲韻味的意象構建出中國電影獨有的詩意影像。中華人民共和國成立后,“百花齊放”的方針推動了戲曲電影的繁榮,多劇種多曲目被拍攝成電影,宏偉的家國夢想成為時代的主流,對英雄人物與理想的歌頌激蕩人心,其中《楊門女將》《野豬林》等戲曲片重現歷史人物的偉大事跡,激勵了國民。改革開放之后,吳貽弓、吳天明、黃蜀芹等導演巧妙地將戲曲元素融入現實,《人·鬼·情》《變臉》等影片在影像與戲曲的交融中表達了對現實的思索與人性的探討。第五代導演則挖掘電影藝術本體,大量運用戲曲元素,在中國電影史上樹立了新的思想藝術豐碑,《紅高粱》《活著》《霸王別姬》等影片,有對民族命運的探求,有對歷史的哲理反思,有對時代人物的剖析,無一例外地都在鮮明的中國元素的標識下書寫著“中國精神”。第六代導演和更年輕一代電影人則更為靈活地運用戲曲元素表達精神訴求,是新時代中國精神的有力彰顯。

    戲曲藝術與中國電影的結合,使中國電影成為塑造中國性格、凝聚中國精神、傳承中國文化、傳播中國價值的重要載體,是建構“中國電影學派”的有力手段和重要途徑。在倡導文化自信的今天,我們有理由相信,中國電影對戲曲藝術的借鑒融合,將在“中國電影學派”的建構中發揮更為重要的作用。

    (作者為南京師范大學副教授)

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