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  • 国粹云

    戏曲批评滞后 专家认为:该尖锐的尖锐不起来

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2018-12-29 22:21 出处:中国艺术报 作者:吴华 编辑:@国粹云
    戏曲批评滞后 专家认为:该尖锐的尖锐不起来

    戏曲批评滞后 专家认为:该尖锐的尖锐不起来
    来源:中国艺术报 吴华

      1913年,由商务印书馆创刊并发行的《东方杂志》第九卷第十号上, 《宋元戏曲史》赫然出现在封面的“本号要目”上,正文署名“海宁王国维” 。王国维在该文自序中说:“一代有一代之文学。 ”将戏曲作为文学艺术的一种,提升到与唐诗、宋词同等的高度。11月18日,值此文发表100周年纪念日,由中国艺术研究院、浙江省文化厅、浙江省文联、海宁市人民政府主办的第六届中国(海宁) ·王国维戏曲论文奖颁奖典礼暨“王国维与21世纪传统戏曲发展”学术研讨会召开之际,又引发了一场业界关于戏曲的大讨论,矛头直指当今戏曲批评。

      戏曲批评的滞后甚至缺失无疑是戏曲发展到今天面临的重要问题之一。如果说市场化、商业化降低了戏曲的艺术性,那么主题先行、名角效应等不得不说是戏曲批评缺失的重要原因,以前大剧种面临的问题,现在地方戏也常见。主题先行,定位好大方向,没人敢妄加评论,执著于“点赞”乐此不疲。而面对自己喜欢的演员,更是崇拜得五体投地,沉浸其中,感同身受,不能自拔,至于戏怎么样早已抛到脑后。浙江省文化艺术研究院研究员李尧坤认为,戏曲批评的前提是要重视对戏曲规律的研究,正确认识戏曲规律。今年国家大剧院上演的新概念越剧《江南好人》备受好评,茅威涛更是受尽追捧。唱功好值得肯定,但是李尧坤指出,戏曲的创新要立足于本体,而在《江南好人》中,加入了大量的评弹,真正能发挥越剧唱腔特点的唱段很少,这不得不说是本体上的迷失。如果这类批评的声音再大些,估计就要淹没在越剧粉丝的口水中了。

      中国艺术研究院戏曲研究所代所长贾志刚从批评的对象入手发表了自己的看法。他认为,现如今研究《桃花扇》 《西厢记》等传统剧本的文章太多了,而且致力于此的青年学者比比皆是,看似想把学问做得天衣无缝,实则老套陈旧。传统戏曲的唱念做打、舞台演出形式等只能从文献记载中获得,到底真实情况如何,我们无从考证,而且研究传统戏的文章已经铺天盖地,那么,为什么不把视角从传统戏上转移到近现代戏曲或是当代戏曲呢。贾志刚指出,戏曲的真正变化正是产生于近现代戏曲的舞台上,戏曲的史论研究也应该与时俱进,向前推进,这个时代更需要有特殊意义和价值的近现代戏曲批评。

      “该宽容不宽容、该尖锐尖锐不起来” ,中山大学文学院教授康保成认为在当今多元化的社会大背景下戏曲批评的评判标准有失偏颇。众所周知,话剧加唱这一当前流行的表演形式戏曲界人士不能苟同,被定义为“四不像” 。康保成认为,话剧加唱既然得到了观众的认可和喜爱,就有它存在的价值,换个名字成为一种新的艺术形式就可以了,没必要为此争个你死我活,该包容的时候要包容。而对于涉及到戏曲本身的一些尖锐问题,批评的态度就一定要尖锐,这一点,做得还远远不够。


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