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  • 国粹云

    京剧版《卡路里》:用流行方式传播京剧不跌份儿

    国粹云 http://www.jhsqhg.com 2019-04-24 08:58 出处:网络 编辑:@国粹云
    京剧版《卡路里》:用流行方式传播京剧不跌份儿

    京剧版《卡路里》:用流行方式传播京剧不跌份儿

    新京报漫画/赵斌

      一曲京剧版的《卡路里》走红网络,起因是一位名为贾怀胤的京剧演员,为了向学生证实他也会唱流行歌曲,即兴发挥用京剧演唱了一段火箭少女的热曲《卡路里》。有网友听后表示,已经忘记了原唱,也有网友觉得,京剧版《卡路里》在格调上比原曲高多了,还有的网友则觉得,这样的做法是“恶搞”国粹,有点儿不合适,这种“跨界创造”究竟跌份儿吗?

      京剧与流行音乐产生联系,是两相得利

      好听到让人忘记原唱,那是因为京剧是人类非物质文化遗产,有200多年历史打底,中间经历无数表演艺术家的传承。到了贾怀胤这一代,京剧虽然落寞了,但“唱念做打”的基本功仍然是很扎实的。网友认为京剧版《卡路里》比“火箭少女”演唱的格调要高,倒不见得是非黑即白的二元论,而是瞬间被隐藏在这首新神曲背后的文化意味所折服。

      京剧版《卡路里》如此受欢迎,是因为人们压根都不会想到京剧会与流行音乐产生关系,这种戏剧化的冲突与融合,恰好符合社交媒体“求新求异”的传播规律。出乎大家意料的是,这样的跨界结合,非但没有给人以荒诞感,反而解决了一些“傲慢与偏见”——京剧不是那么高高在上、凛然不可侵犯,《卡路里》也未必是庸俗的口水歌,两相得利,这大概是京剧粉丝与“火箭少女”粉丝都愿意看到的事情。

      用娱乐心态参与传统文化推广是有可能的

      2008年,著名相声艺术家姜昆对网络上的“恶搞”行为开炮,称网络恶搞是“下三路”的东西,是“流氓”文化。放在十年前,贾怀胤用京剧演唱《卡路里》,没准也会被归类于“恶搞”,遭到前辈们的严厉批评,但现在的确时代变了。相声界以及京剧界的老人们都变得开明起来(抑或他们不熟悉社交媒体,失去了发声渠道),而新人们则开始勇敢地尝试拥抱新时代,网民们的眼光也变得宽容,这使得京剧在千变万化的全媒体时代有了多种可能性。

      年轻的京剧大咖王佩瑜,频繁出现于各类综艺节目,在谈话类节目《圆桌派》、演唱类节目《跨界歌王》、真人秀节目《奇葩大会》、脱口秀节目《吐槽大会》中,均给人留下深刻印象,尤其是在《吐槽大会》里,她不仅要接受其他嘉宾对于京剧自身的吐槽,也要变身为吐槽者,以京剧演员的身份去制造“梗”,来实现与流行文化的碰撞与交流。师承名门,学院派教育,出色的专业素养,灵活的应变能力,使得王佩瑜成为名副其实的京剧偶像与流行文化明星。

      艺术传承的关键在于人,这在很长一段时间内,都被当成保护传统戏剧的金规铁律。无论是直接传承人还是间接传承人,都承担了巨大的文化责任,甚至这责任会成为难以承受之重。王佩瑜也好,贾怀胤也好,他们的价值在于坚守住了京剧的艺术魅力核心,更在于把重任轻松化解,以娱乐的心态去参与京剧艺术的推广,这保证了京剧在纵向的时间线索上不断裂的同时,也在横向的空间范围内实现了蒲公英式的传播。

      内核不变,外在呈现方式可以创新尝试

      弘扬京剧国粹,人才与传播缺一不可。在京剧辉煌时代,梅兰芳、程砚秋、周信芳、马连良、张君秋、高庆奎等组成的阵容,可谓人才济济,但也要承认,他们是在当时文化娱乐消费比较单一的环境下,才得以成为主流明星的。现在像贾怀胤这样的京剧人才有许多,但却很难重现过去那种星光熠熠的场景,这不是“观众抛弃了京剧”这个简单的定论就能说明问题的,而是在过去一二十年里,文娱消费环境、渠道、作品与产品都发生了巨大的变化,而被“京剧不能变”束缚住手脚的京剧界,却没能做到与时俱进,让它的艺术魅力参与市场竞争。

      属于京剧的严肃艺术内核不能变,但京剧的外在呈现方式,尤其是传播方面的多样化,都要进行创新尝试。从梅兰芳时代,这位京剧大师就顶住巨大压力,在京剧的表现形式与传播方式做出了很多创新工作。“梅派”的影响以及在美国推广京剧获得的成功,都是“求变”的结果。梅兰芳之子梅葆玖生前也曾表示,“京剧需要不断创新,虚拟影像、立体音效、LED展示等现代科技方式和手段完全可以为京剧服务”……发展到今天,“一个动作也不能改”“一句唱腔也不能变”等戴在京剧脖子上的“纸枷锁”,其实已经失去了存在的土壤。

      “人类非物质文化遗产”与“国粹”这两个荣誉,并不意味着京剧要与外部环境变化断裂,真正的文化遗产与国粹,是要通过一次次地被发现、被欣赏、被消费,才能得以绽放艺术活力、获取长久艺术生命力。被公众所看到、所追捧,要比停留在荣誉的光环里故步自封重要得多。

      因此,不但王佩瑜、贾怀胤要继续勇敢地尝试对京剧进行推广,其他京剧表演艺术家、演员、学生,也要有这样一个认识:用流行方式来传播京剧不跌份。陈凯歌电影《梅兰芳》中以京剧大师谭鑫培为原型的十三燕有一句台词很动人,“输不丢人,怕才丢人”,京剧界人士不要怕,要相信这个多元、包容的时代,给京剧发展提供的空间是空前大的,看只看京剧从业者的自我挖掘与开发能力了。

      韩浩月(评论人)


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